Dr. Laurence J. Peter published the The Peter Principle in 1969. While its approach is humorous, its truth is grounded in our collective management experience.
Its premise is that in management hierarchies, people, through their careers, continue to advance until they have been promoted one layer above their level of capability. They are promoted to their level of incompetence, where they stay until they retire. That is the Peter Principle. Dr. Peter has several suggestions for its causes and prescriptions for its solution.
It is interesting that he accurately describes the phenomena we find embedded in Elliott’s research. One reason for mismatches inside any organization is surely The Peter Principle, where people are inappropriately promoted or advanced beyond their capability.